RISE AND FALL OF THE KINGDOM OF MALACCA IN THE CONTEXT OF IBN KHALDUN’S CYLICAL THEORY
Keywords:Parameswara, entreport trade, Ibn Khaldun’s cyclical theory, Ming dynasty, Alfonso de Albuquerque
Malacca which had a humble beginning as a fishing village of a mixed population of local Malays and ‘orang laut’ was transformed to become the most significant trading emporium and entreport after the arrival of a ‘fugitive prince’ Parameswara or ‘Permai-Suara’ later re-named as Iskandar Shah from Temasik (Singapore) having his origins from Palembang. This had attracted not only regional traders of the Malay world but also those engaged in long distance trade like the Indians, Arabs, Chinese and especially the European powers. Under the capable leadership of Tun Perak, also known as Bendahara Seri Maharaja during Sultan Muzaffar, Sultan Mansur and Alauddin Riayat Shah, it became a regional centre to supply products from the spice islands as well as iron and gold from the hinterland that were in great demand in Europe, the Middle East, India and China. The capability of its defence was further enhanced with the protection it received from the Ming dynasty of China which had a symbiotic and affective diplomatic relationship with Malacca. The coming of Portuguese fleet in 1509 lead by Diego Lopez de Sequira had radically changed its fate and future. Two years later, a Portuguese Admiral Allfonso de Albuquerque arrived with a bigger fleet with a determination to crush the trading monopoly of the Muslims in the East, and finally able to take over control of Malacca which led to its final downfall as an Empire and Kingdom that had the image as the centre of world trading activities which lasted for approximately 110 years. The paper will analyse both the beginning of Malacca and its rise as well as its final downfall in the context of Ibn Khaldun cyclical theory on the rise and fall of civilizations.